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Landscape Journal


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Landscape Journal
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Landscape Journal Manuscript Style Guide

Microsoft Word is recommended as the primary software application for the text of the article and the cover letter. Materials submitted as Adobe Portable Document Format (.pdf) files will not be accepted by the Editorial Office.

General Formatting

Text documents are:

  • US letter sized (8.5 in. × 11 in.)
  • Portrait orientation. Landscape orientation can be used in some situations for tables and figures for the review document. If the submission is accepted, layout decisions are made on a case-by-case basis.
  • 2.5 cm (1-inch) margins on all sides
  • Use continuous page numbering and continuous line numbering
  • Times New Roman, 12-point font
  • Double-spaced
  • Single space between the end of one sentence and the start of the next sentence
  • Remove extraneous spaces, tabs, and other format notations
  • Single column with headings and subheadings, as appropriate
  • International System of Units (SI). You are free to use additional units to give clearer meaning to your work in parentheses if you desire and the Editor concurs.
  • References: One-half inch, hanging indent and alphabetize by first author surname following the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th edition). We encourage authors to note Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for references when available.

Page One Requirements

Title. The title is Times New Roman 18-point, bold, and in title case format. If a subtitle is used, it should be preceded by a colon and the first word is capitalized as well as any nouns and verbs.

Abstract. The “Abstract” heading is bold. Abstract text begins on the next line. The abstract should be one paragraph with no more than 250 words. Landscape Journal abstracts can vary in structure but should answer these five questions:

  1. What is the general issue or topic addressed in this article?
  2. What is the research question, hypothesis, or need driving this scholarship?
  3. What was the method or approach to accomplishing the work’s objectives?
  4. What are the work’s highlights or key takeaways?
  5. What are the implications for future research, teaching, policy, or practice?

Keywords (no more than six). Keywords are below the abstract and the “Keywords” heading is bold. Keywords begin on the next line. The keywords supplement but do not repeat words or phrases in the article’s title. The first letter of the first keyword and any proper nouns are capitalized.

Formatting Details

  1. Page and Line Numbering
    Number all pages in the upper-right hand corner using Arabic numerals one inch down from the top and flush with the right margin. Use continuous line numbering to help the Editorial Office and reviewers provide an efficient way to comment on the submission.
  2. Headings and Subheadings
    The headings are important to help organize and show the relative importance of the different sections to the reader. Three heading levels are typically sufficient to organize Landscape Journal submissions so that the author can communicate to the reader. If additional heading levels are desired, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) (7th edition) for guidance.
    First-Order Heading

    There are two paragraph returns (one line space) between a first-order heading and text. Center the boldface heading and capitalize the first letter of each major word (title case). There is no indentation on the first paragraph.
          The second and subsequent paragraphs begin with a one-half inch indentation.

    Second-Order Heading
    There is one paragraph return between a second-order heading and text. Set flush left the boldface heading and capitalize the first letter of each major word (title case). There is no indentation on the first paragraph.
          The second and subsequent paragraphs begin with a one-half inch indentation.

    Third-order heading. Set all heading words in boldface. The first word is capitalized, and the remaining words are lower-case unless proper nouns. The heading is concluded with a period and the starting paragraph text continues on the same line.
          The second and subsequent paragraphs begin with a one-half inch indentation.

  3. Lists
    Bulleted Lists
    A bulleted list is a typographical method of pulling serial information out of a sentence or paragraph. A bulleted list should always be preceded by a colon, can contain punctuation, and can contain connective conjunctions. Please be consistent with the use of ending punctuation in list items.

    Upon completion of this module, students will be able to perform the following tasks:
    • Model land use change and illustrate scenarios.
    • Revise assumptions and re-run the analysis.
    • Determine model acceptance, modification, or rejection.

    Numbered Lists
    A numbered list is used to connote ordinal position in a series or progression. A numbered list should always be preceded by a colon. Please be consistent with the use of ending punctuation in list items.

    To engage the community in scenario creation, the design team had to:
    1. collect base data and develop a scope of work,
    2. build an interactive digital model of the space,
    3. create a digital newsletter and blog,
    4. arrange for a facilitator to run the meetings and solicit scenario comments.

  4. Tables
    The table title appears above the table, with notes or explanation below the table. These elements should explain the table and the reader should not have to refer to the text to discern the table’s meaning and importance. Please construct tables using the table feature (Insert menu, Insert Table) in Microsoft Word. Tables are typically located immediately following the paragraph where it is first mentioned. See section 5.07–5.19 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for guidance.

  5. Figures
    Figures are an important part of an article. Figures can include graphs, charts, maps, drawings, photographs, and images. There needs to be a caption for each figure. The caption explains the figure succinctly and serves as a figure title. The reader should not have to refer to the text to discern the figure's meaning and importance. There should be acknowledgment of the figure creator. In some cases, legends need to be provided to explain the symbols/patterns used in the figure. In general, please be sure the legend and other image details are legible in the size of the Landscape Journal format. Figures are typically located immediately following the paragraph where it is first mentioned. See section 5.20–5.30 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for guidance. Figures also must comply with the Artwork Guidelines of the University of Wisconsin Press (see “Artwork”).

    Artwork. Consult the Artwork Guidelines on the University of Wisconsin Press website. Authors must obtain permission to use all images owned or created by others. When obtaining permission, be sure to ask the source how they would like to be mentioned—this text will be used to show you have permission to use the art. (For example: Image courtesy of The National Archives.) Images taken from the “web” must have permissions accompanying them. Google Maps and Google Earth have a great resource should you like to use one of their images. See

    Figure files will follow the Artwork Guidelines. Tagged Image File Format (.tif or TIFF) or Encapsulated Postscript (.eps) for line illustrations are the preferred formats, although .jpg, .bmp, or .png can be used in some situations. There are extra costs for the author(s) when printing in color; the online version can use color figures without an additional cost.

  6. Quotations
    Closing double or single quotation marks always follow punctuation.

    The resulting scheme of criteria, and the approach to practice with form I have given the title: “aesthetics of thrift.”

    Finally, in the development of this approach to aesthetic teaching, I have employed studies and methodologies utilizing “research by design.”

    “Where else can we turn for an accurate model of the world and ourselves but to science?” (McHarg, 1969, p.29).

    “trained…in reading the landscape as allegory” (Brook, 2008, p.111).

    Landscape Journal uses Americanized quote marks—only use single quotes when a quote within a quote appears.

    As Horace Greeley said, “Go West young man.”

    As Wikipedia explains, “Josiah Bushnell Grinnell claimed in his autobiography that Horace Greeley first addressed the advice to him in 1833, before sending him off to Illinois to report on the Illinois Agricultural State Fair. Grinnell reports the full conversation as, ‘Go West, young man, go West. There is health in the country, and room away from our crowds of idlers and imbeciles.’”

  7. Footnotes and Endnotes
    Landscape Journal does not use footnotes or endnotes for references.

  8. Scientific Nomenclature and Dashes
    • Common and Scientific Names
      Common and scientific names of biological species should follow this format: common name (Genus species). Example: white pine (Pinus strobus)

    • Clauses are separated by an em-dash (press Ctrl+Alt+Minus on the numeric keypad).
      Even the latest trend in landscape architecture—landscape urbanism—has ties to McHarg’s work.

    • Always use an en-dash in number ranges (including page ranges in references) (press Ctrl+Minus on the numeric keypad).
      Items 1–4 are being used to show…
      Respondents ages 25–60 were asked to rate…

  9. References
    References and in-text citations are a common difficulty for authors during the review process. At the time of submission, it is the author’s responsibility to ensure accuracy, completeness, and consistency of references. Refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th edition) for citation types not provided below. The manual can be purchased directly at and is available at other locations.

    Every author-date citation in the text or captions should have a corresponding entry in the “References” at the end of the paper. When quoting directly from a work, include the appropriate page number(s). Every entry in the references or captions should have a corresponding citation in the text.

    • Book
      Tomlin, C.D. (2013). GIS and cartographic modeling. Esri Press.
      Zeisel, J. (2006). Inquiry by design: Environment/behavior/neuroscience in architecture, interiors, landscape, and planning. W.W. Norton & Company.

    • Book with organization as author
      American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). American Psychological Association.

    • Book with more than one author or editor
      Deming, M.E., & Swaffield, S. (2011). Landscape architectural research: Inquiry, strategy, design. Wiley.

    • Book (editions)
      Bell, S. (2008). Elements of visual design in the landscape (2nd ed.). Routledge. Tyler, N., Ligibel, T.J., & Tyler, I.R. (2009). Historic preservation: An introduction to its history, principles, and practice (2nd ed.). W.W. Norton & Company.

    • Article/chapter from edited volume
      Holland, M.J. (2015). Memory work: The submissions to the Oklahoma City Memorial Competition. In M.E. Deming (Ed.), Values in landscape architecture and environmental design: Finding center in theory and practice (pp. 102–118). Louisiana State University Press.

    • Journal article
      Francis, M. (2001). A case study method for landscape architects. Landscape Journal, 20(1), 15–29.
      Russell, V.L. (2001). You dear old prima donna: The letters of Frank Lloyd Wright and Jens Jensen. Landscape Journal, 20(2), 141–155.
      Crankshaw, N., Brent, J.E., & Campbell Brent, M. (2016). The Lost Cause and reunion in the Confederate cemeteries of the North. Landscape Journal, 35(1), 1–22.

    • Government report
      If a report is attributed to more than six named authors (see example below), list the first six authors, use an ellipsis in place of the seventh through nth authors, and then provide the final author’s name preceded by an ampersand. In some government reports, the author can be the agency or specific office or institute.

      Jones, K.B., Riitters, K.H., Wickham, J.D., Tankersley, Jr., R.D., O'Neill, R.V., Chaloud, D.J., Smith, E.R., & Neale, A.C. (1997). An ecological assessment of the United States Mid-Atlantic Region: A landscape atlas. (EPA/600/R-97/130). United States Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Research and Development. Retrieved from

    • Theses and dissertations
      Tyng, A.G. (1975). Simultaneous randomness and order: The Fibonacci-Divine proportion as a universal forming principle [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Pennsylvania.

    • Conference presentation
      Li, M. (2017, May). Bioretention performance with design parameters using decision tree model.
      Oral presentation at the meeting of the Council of Educators in Landscape Architecture (CELA) and the Chinese Society of Landscape Architecture Education Committee (CLAEC). Beijing, People’s Republic of China.

    • Film
      Whyte, W.H. (Director & Writer). (1980). Social life of small urban spaces [Documentary]. Municipal Art Society of New York.
      Protess, D. (Producer), & Baer, G. (Host). (2016). Ten parks that changed America [Documentary]. 10 that changed America series. WTTW Chicago.

    • Presentation or competition
      Cutler, J., & Smith, M. (1991). Salem Tercentennial Competition. Entry boards.

    • Website (include full URL, and include access dates when online document is undated)
      American Planning Association. (n.d.). LBCS Standards (Land-Based Classification Standards). Retrieved from
      Olin. (2017). The J. Paul Getty Center. The Landmark Award, 2017 Professional Awards, American Society of Landscape Architects. Retrieved from
      Andropogon Associates. (2016). Weather-Smithing: Assessing the role of vegetation, soil, and adaptive management in urban green infrastructure performance. Research Category—Honor Award, 2016 Professional Awards, American Society of Landscape Architects. Retrieved from

    • Multiple references with single author
      (Note: references by the same author(s) are in ascending chronological order, multiple entries in same year are alphabetical by title, adding "a" "b" etc.)

      Halprin, L. (1962a). Notebook 15…
      Halprin, L. (1962b). The Shape of Erosion…
      Halprin, L. (1972). Notebooks 1959–1971. The MIT Press.

    • Personal communication—Interview, letter, email, conversation
      Communication types that are not retrievable by a reader are cited in the text using the following format and are not included in the references list.
      I.L. McHarg (personal communication, March 5, 2001) exclaimed…
      …(D. Kiley, personal communication, February 21, 2004).

  10. In-text Citations
    The term author can refer to a person, editor, compiler, or organization. Abbreviations (ed., comp.) are not included. Use first initial when more than one author with the same last name exists. Add alphabetical identifiers to the date (2001a, 2001b, etc.) when multiple works by the same author(s) within the same year occur.

    • One work by one author
      (Tomlin, 2013) or C. Dana Tomlin (2013)
      (Pennsylvania State University, 2005) or The Pennsylvania State University (2005)

    • One work by two authors
      Deming and Swaffield (2011) or (Deming & Swaffield, 2011)

    • One work by three authors
      Eisner, Gallion, and Eisner (1996); Eisner et al. (1996); (Eisner, Gallion, & Eisner, 442, 1996); or (Eisner et al., 1996).

    • One work by three or more authors
      Lee et al. (2017) or (Lee et al., 2017)

    • Multiple works by same author
      Separate references by a comma, in ascending order by year.

      (Nassauer, 1993, 1997)
      (Nassauer, 1993, pp.23–24; 1997)

    • Multiple works by different authors
      (Note: separate references by a semicolon, in ascending order by year. If page numbers are specified use a semicolon as a separator.)

      (Nassauer, 1997; Purcell, 1998, p.23; Talke, 2009)

    • In-text references are enclosed by periods.
      Instead, by 1985, development there used the conventional curb-and-gutter system (Girling & Helphand, 1994, pp.166–67).

    • Cited quotations are enclosed by quotation marks and followed by the in-text citation and period.
      “Words can describe physical forms, but they do not (or did not) originate them; nor can they perform operations upon them” (Olin, 1988, p.155).